Tuesday, May 3, 2022

How To Draw A Bridge Over A River

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Evaluate And Adapt Your Rough Sketches

How to Draw a Bridge Over a River Step by Step Easy

Your team will now prepare a tender. To start, choose the best design in your team. This means you need to choose one sketch from all the rough sketches. To help you choose, answer the following questions:

Questions

Does the structure allow people to move across the river safely?

Does the structure protect people from crocodiles?

Does the structure allow a group to cross safely?

Will the structure be safe when the river floods?

Is the structure durable, and will it last a long time without breaking?

Is the structure made of the right materials? Remember that the bridge could be in constant contact with water and should not rust.

Will the structure withstand both static and dynamic forces?

Will the structure be very expensive to build? Remember that you are building it for people, not cars.

Will the structure be expensive to maintain?

Does the structure damage the environment?

If the sketches do not meet these requirements, adapt them until they do.

Draw your adapted sketches in the space on the next page. This is your final solution and it will form the basis of your working drawing.

Make your sketches here:

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Spanning The Rivire Des Prairies

Although the Rivière des Prairies is much smaller than the Saint Lawrence, bridge construction there did not begin until the 1840swhen rapid construction began on three wooden toll bridges to what is now Laval, one of which, Pont des Saints-Anges, collapsed in the 1880s and was never rebuilt. The existence of regular ferry services across the river is attested from 1813, but these ferries were discontinued when the bridges opened. The first railroad across the river was opened in 1876, and the Bordeaux Railway Bridge is the oldest fixed link to Laval that is still standing. The highway construction boom of the 1960s and 1970s led to the construction of four new freeway bridges across the river, and the upgrading of the existing Pie IX Bridge to freeway standards.

Span
Île Bizard

Discuss And Practise Making Your Model

How to Draw a Bridge Over a River || Easy Lake Drawing Step by Step || Oil Pastel Drawing || Art

You will make a model of your structure. Discuss how you will do this in your group.

Think carefully about all the materials you will need to build your model. Do you need paper, glue, and/or corrugated cardboard? And what about tools? Do you need scissors or glue-guns?

Write a complete list of all the materials and tools necessary to build your model.

You need a plan to help you stay organised. Ask yourselves questions such as:

  • What should we do first?
  • What materials do we need for each step?

When you have decided what you will do, add it to your flow chart. Each member of your team should draw up his/her own copy of the flow chart.

The following activity will help you to make strong structures out of paper. You can use these structures to help you build your model bridge.

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Number Of People Who Can Use The Installation

OPERATIONAL ACTION POINT: Our advice and instructions for use would be to limit numbers on each run of the walkway to 10 persons at any one time. This is also to do with flow of people and their enjoyment of the experience. It is recommended that this is clearly marked through signage.

Hemp coloured safety netting that provides the environment within which the user is located at all times is a high tenacity polypropylene and knotless 45mm mesh, manufactured according to EN 1263-1:2002, EN 1263-2 and the new Working at Height regulation 2005. The UK health & Safety Executive regard nets as their âpreferred method of fall arrest â.

Security And Emergency Plan

OPERATIONAL ACTION POINT: It will generally be appropriate to have a policy on ratios, maximum group size, use of staff/assistants, etc. This should take account of management difficulties on particular elements. There should be sufficient security of the whole area to ensure that only personnel under suitable supervision are able to use the facility.

OPERATIONAL ACTION POINT: There will be a need for checking any conditions that requires a participant to receive special attention, or who may be excluded from the activity. If this is the case this will call for additional personnel to be there and will need to be an appropriate system for making them available.

OPERATIONAL ACTION POINT: In addition to normal first aid facilities it may be appropriate to include scenario-based training, using actual elements, so staff can identify the problems as well as the solutions particular elements may present.Participants not involved in an element may be harmed in a variety of ways. For example, participants ‘waiting their turn’ can wander off into the surrounding areas.

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Make A Model Of Your Bridge

Build one model for your team that looks like your working drawing. It should be built neatly, safely and to scale. You can use materials available to you such as cardboard, string, wire, pieces of wood, drinking straws, plastic and clay. You can also use glue and paint.

Be aware of safety at all times, especially when working with blades and toxic glues .

Remember to follow the steps as shown in your flow chart. Everyone must be involved with making the model.

Total

List Of Bridges To The Island Of Montreal

How to Draw a Bridge Over a River | Bridge Drawing

Like most major cities, Montreal needs easy highway access from its suburbs and surrounding areas. However, because Montreal was built on an island surrounded by three rivers, it can be entered by land only on a bridge or through a tunnel. Although the city was founded in 1642, it was not until 1847 that the first fixed link to the outside was established when a wooden bridge was built across Rivière des Prairies to Île Jésus, on the site of what is now Ahuntsic Bridge. Another bridge was built immediately afterward, a few kilometers west, which became Lachapelle Bridge, and another in 1849, Pont des Saints-Anges, to the east. The latter bridge collapsed in the 1880s and was never rebuilt.

With the advent of the railroad, Montreal got a fixed link to the mainland; in 1854 railroad bridges were built in Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, across both channels of the Ottawa River, linking Montreal Island to Ontario and the Vaudreuil-Soulanges peninsula through Perrot Island. In 1860, Montreal got its first link to the South Shore with the construction of Victoria Bridge, which was, at the time of its opening, the longest bridge in the world. Indirect links to the North Shore also had to wait for railroad construction, but this took longer; the Canadian Pacific Railway opened its link to Saint-Jérôme in 1876, through Île Jésus.

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Design Brief With Specifications Andconstraints

Write a design brief that explains what you want the structure to do. Your design brief has to list the specifications and constraints for your design. Use the open space below to write your design brief.

Remember that specifications are things that your design must have and constraints are things that your design cannot have. The specifications and the constraints are usually listed in the tender notice.

Specifications could include the following:

  • The bridge has to be completed within a certain time.
  • The bridge has to be built according to budget, including all labour costs.
  • The bridge has to help the community. For example, you can employ local people to work on the bridge and train them while they work on the project. That way, they will have good skills that will help them to find work when this project ends.
  • The bridge has to be user-friendly for disabled and older people.

Constraints could include the following:

  • Time and cost constraints. For example, the building process should not take longer than a specific amount of time, and should not cost more than a certain amount.
  • The bridge cannot exclude wheelchair users.
  • The bridge cannot employ more than a certain number of people from another area.
  • Women should not be prohibited from working on the project.

Total

Write your design brief in the space below and on the next page:

Use Of The Installations

  • The installations have been designed with consideration for the size and the body weight of the family participants, kids and grown-ups.
  • Any moving parts have been designed to limit or eliminate the risk of any injury.
  • There are no sharp edges within reach of the user.
  • The installation is constructed and the equipment chosen so that openings that can be reached in normal use and do not create entrapment hazards.
  • Free space does not contain any unprotected obstacles that a person manoeuvring or falling might crash into, other than the constituent parts of the installations or the natural state of the surrounding facilities.
  • It is not possible to undo critical components without a tool.
  • A installations are designed and intended to be used as a one-way walking journey, with a clearly sign-posted start and finish.
  • It is NOT an active system such as a high ropes course and does not require any specific instruction other than safety guidance and the requirement of supervision of children at all times.

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Investigate Structures To Solve The Problem

On this page and the next there are drawings of different types of bridges. You learnt about these bridges in Grade 8. Do you remember what the names mean? If you cannot remember, look at your Grade 8 book or ask your teacher to help you.

A: A beam and column bridge

B: An arch bridge

F: Acable-stay bridge of the harp shape

G: Acable-stay bridge of the fan shape

H: A smallsuspension bridge

Figure 5

Different types of bridges use different materials and construction methods, but they all have a similar function.

In your group, discuss some of the advantages and disadvantages of each of the bridges for the community. Think about which parts will help the community, and which parts will not help.

If the bridge is meant to carry cars, it might be too expensive for your tender. Remember that the bridge has to solve the community’s problem. In technology, we call this fit-for-purpose. In this case, it means that your bridge has to be strong and high enough to carry people and not cars. However, your bridge has to be strong enough to withstand floods, which are common in KwaZulu-Natal. Your bridge must also be stable, so that it does not sway and cause old people and children to fall when they walk across. It should have a structure that can span a wide river.

Use the following list to help you to investigate each of the bridges in Figure 5on the previous page. Also bring pictures of bridges to school. You can find photographs of bridges in old newspapers and magazines.

Wear Shorts And Footwear

how to draw a bridge over a river/ bridge drawing step by step over a river

Long pants that will get waterlogged and weigh you down, also providing more water resistance. You can even remove your shorts and cross in underwear for less water resistance plus your clothes will be dry on the other side if packed into your backpack with proper waterproofing.

Use a spare pair of sandals or a divers bootees so your hiking boots dont get wet. If you try crossing barefoot you run the risk of cutting feet on sharp rocks and will have less grip, so if you have no alternative footwear youll have to use your boots.

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Dream About The Location Of The Bridge

Dream About Bridge Extending Out Into WaterGenerally, if the bridge flooded over or extended into water or river, it suggests that you will have an emotional transition or upcoming journey. If the water under the bridge is rising onto and flooding the road surface, it suggests that you are letting your emotions holding your back. You are preventing yourself from moving forward.

Its Already Leased Out

The bridges lower deck, which is two hundred and fifty-five feet long, will have a food hall with two commercial kitchens to be used by Slaps BBQ and Buffalo State Pizza. Nick Carroll, owner of Replay Lounge in Lawrence, will own and operate the bars and manage the liquor license. The lower deck will also have an event space. The top deck will house another event space with a dance floor, bar and coffee shop plus an overlook facing the river.

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Spanning The Lake Of Two Mountains And The Ottawa River East Channel

The first railway bridge to Montreal Island was the Grand Trunk Railway bridge across the Ottawa River East Channel. Along with another bridge built simultaneously across the West Channel, this bridge provided the first fixed link from Montreal to the mainland. It was not until 1925, however, that a fixed road link, formed by Galipeault Bridge and Taschereau Bridge, was built across the Ottawa River from Montreal Island.Perrot Island was the only way out of Montreal to the West before the construction of Île aux Tourtes Bridge, which goes directly to Vaudreuil across the Lake of Two Mountains.

All three spans across the Ottawa River East Channel are twinned by another span, built simultaneously, across the West Channel.

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Avoid Crossing In Water Deeper Than Your Knees

How To Draw Using 1-Point Perspective: Draw Bridge over River Step-by-step

If you lose your footing in deeper water you could get washed away. This is hard to gauge as the river may get deeper suddenly when you are already half way across.

Use a pebble to try gauge the depth by throwing it into the middle of the river. If there is a hollow sound the water may be too deep. The force of water is not to be underestimated so be very careful of entering water always try gauge the current first.

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Draw Bridge Over Potomac At George Town Dc / Jrs

Draw bridge over Potomac at George Town, D.C. / J.R.S.
Summary
Drawing shows the Chain Bridge spanning the Potomac River at Georgetown, Washington, D.C., with a covered wagon on the bridge; also shows men loading a boat with barrels from a loading dock at left center, with buildings in the background, and rocks along the shore in the foreground.
Contributor Names
Smith, John Rubens, 1775-1849, artist
: ,
Subject Headings
-; Philadelphia Print Shop Inventory, no. 674.
-;
-; Forms part of: John Rubens Smith collection .
-; Forms part of: Marian S. Carson collection at the Library of Congress.
-; Forms part of: Documentary drawing filing series .
Medium
1 drawing : graphite on wove paper ; sheet 34.2 x 48.3 cm.
DRWG/US – Smith , no. 46
Documentary drawing filing series
Repository
Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA
Digital Id
Library of Congress Control Number
2014649067
LC-DIG-ppmsca-38522
Rights Advisory
No known restrictions on publication.
Online Format

The Library of Congress generally does not own rights to material in its collections and, therefore, cannot grant or deny permission to publish or otherwise distribute the material. For information about assessing rights, see the Rights and Restrictions Information page.

  • Rights Advisory:No known restrictions on publication.
  • Reproduction Number:LC-DIG-ppmsca-38522
  • :DRWG/US – Smith , no. 46
  • Access Advisory: —

Avoid Using Submerged Rocks

Submerged rocks are tricky you are tempted to use them because you wont get as wet but they can be dangerous. You can easily slip off the rocks as they tend to be slimy.

Stick to making your way across a sandy or gravel bottom if you can see it, or using your pole to tell you where the sand or rocks are situated Some rocks may be loose and tip, pitching you off balance and into the water, possibly resulting in a sprained ankle or worse if you hit a rock with your head.

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Loosen The Straps On Your Backpack

Make sure in case of emergency your back pack can be easily removed if you fall loosen shoulder straps and unclip the waist clip so it can be shrugged off easily before entering the river. It is better to lose your backpack than your life.

If you want to be really well prepared attach a colorful float to your back pack so you can search for it down stream later once you have crossed safely, and make sure the contents of your back pack are packed in waterproof bags.

Improvised floats can be made from empty plastic containers that have the lid screwed on securely, or a piece of wood.

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