Sunday, May 15, 2022

How To Draw A Contour Map

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How To Create Contour Plots In Excel

How to Draw Contour Lines on a Map

Contour Plots in Excel is very simple and easy. Lets understand how to create the Contour Plots in Excel with some examples.

Example #1 2D Contour Graph in Excel

Suppose we are having data of X, Y values on which the Z value is dependent . See the screenshot below.

Step 1: In order to create a graph associated with your data, select all the data from A1 to F6.

Step 2: Click on the Insert tab present on the uppermost ribbon in the Microsoft Excel sheet and select the Recommended Charts option out of it.

Step 3: Once you click on the Recommended Charts option, it will open up a new window named Insert Chart. There in that window, click on the All Charts option. A list of charts available under excel will open up. Out of the different list of charts, select Surface. Different types of surface charts will be visible.

Step 4: Out of the 4 surface chart options available, click on the third chart, which is a contour chart. Once you click on that, youll see a visualization of your contour graph associated with the data selected. Click on the OK button to generate the graph.

Step 5: Once you click on the OK button, thats it. Your chart is ready, and you can see the layout of the same as shown in the image below.

Step 6: Add a title to this chart as the Contour graph under the Chart Title section.

Example #2 Wireframe Contour Chart in Excel

Make Five Contour Line Drawings In Less Than One Minute Each

Sometimes you just need a quick exercise to get your creative juices flowing, and contour art, because it doesnt get into the details of objects, is great for this. This exercise involves drawing five contour line pieces in less than five minutes. You can draw five different objects, draw the same object five times, or a combination. Because youre only spending a minute on each object, youll need to be able to replicate its form quickly but accurately.

How Do I Import Contours Into Autocad

Importing Contours from ShapeFile

  • Navigate to the location of the ShapeFile (*.
  • Select the .
  • In the next dialog, follow steps 5 though 8 below.
  • Check on Import polygons as closed polylines in the lower right.
  • In the grid in the center, click under .
  • Set the radio button to Create object data and click .
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    Draw Long Continuous Lines

    Many people new to contour art begin by drawing lots of short lines because they arent used to not looking at their paper, and they dont want to make too big of a mistake by drawing a long line that doesnt follow the objects lines. However, youll improve your drawing skills more if you draw fewer, longer lines. Drawing longer lines, especially without looking at your paper, improves your hand-eye coordination and helps you become more confident when drawing.

    Online Software To Create Contour Map From Elevations

    Drawing Contour Lines on a Topographic Map
  • Prerequisite

    CSV file containing point data. In CSV file Easting , Northing and Elevation Co-ordinates are expected in the contour input file. CSV file may contain additional column data like Serial Number, Code but, having X , Y and Z data is mandatory. It may be kindly noted that the units are to be only in metric system. In the CSV file Easting, Northing and elevation are required to be in Metres only.

  • Example CSV File

  • Boundary Definition File
  • Although it is not compulsory to give boundary data, we strongly recommend you to provide the boundary definition file as input for better results. You can create the boundary definition file from your CAD drawing using the free lisp program provided in the download section.

    If you dont have boundary definition file, you can give a factor called Scanning Radius to help the application prepare an approximate boundary. You have to specify Scanning Radius as a factor which indicates approximately at what distances your input data is captured.

  • Know Software Limits

    Online application ESurveyCAD will not generate the contour map for any input given. Before processing the file following limits are checked and only if input data is within specified limits, then the process will continue.

  • You can process data with maximum elevation difference of 200 meters
  • You can specify the contour interval in a way maximum of 800 contours can be created in one process
  • Number of points you can process at a time is limited to 20,000
  • Terminologies

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    Contour Maps And Its Uses

    Fig. 1: Contours

  • Contour lines must close, not necessarily in the limits of the plan.
  • Widely spaced contour indicates flat surface.
  • Closely spaced contour indicates steep ground.
  • Equally spaced contour indicates uniform slope.
  • Irregular contours indicate uneven surface.
  • Approximately concentric closed contours with decreasing values towards centre indicate a pond.
  • Approximately concentric closed contours with increasing values towards centre indicate hills.
  • Contour lines with U-shape with convexity towards lower ground indicate ridge .
  • Fig. 2

    Fig. 3

    Fig. 4

    Fig. 5

    Contours Over Discontinuous Surface

    Insert NaN values wherever there are discontinuities on a surface. The contour function does not draw contour lines in those regions.

    Define matrix Z as a sampling of the peaks function. Replace all values in column 26 with NaN values. Then plot the contours of the modified Z matrix.

    Z = peaks Z = NaN contour

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    Introduction To Contour Plots In Excel

    Contour Plots is the way in which you can represent the three-dimensional surface , Width and depth/volume) chart on a two-dimensional plane . In this chart, lines are drawn for coordinates where the response values are occurring. Contour charts are similar to the surface charts that can be seen from above and are 2-D charts most of the time. A contour graph can be used when we have two predictors X & Y, which have an impact on the response variable Z. The values of Z in the graph are called contours. Contour graphs are frequently used in Cartography which is more associated with geocoding of the regions. However, it also has some utilization under different branches such as Astrology, Meteorology in statistics, this type of chart is used to check the relationship between two predictors and response.

    Excel functions, formula, charts, formatting creating excel dashboard & others

    How To Draw Contour Line Art: 4 Key Steps

    How to Draw Topographic Profiles

    Have you heard about contour line art but arent sure what it is? The good news is that youve likely already made dozens, maybe even hundreds, of contour line drawings throughout your life without realizing it! Contour drawing is one of the easiest and most effective ways to improve your hand-eye coordination and drawing skills.

    In this guide, we explain what contour lines in art are and how you make contour line art. We also suggest different contour drawing exercises so you can keep improving your skills.

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    How To Draw A Contour Map

    Petroleum geologists make all kinds of contour maps. Contouring is not especially difficult, but it is easy to make small mistakes when the map gets very large. Your small mistakes might make the map invalid! It does take lots of practice and patience to make a nice-looking map.

    In a large part of the United States, the Township and Range System is used to spot wells. This system is part of the Public Land Survey, that was established when the country was young.

    How to make a countour map: Lets assume we are making a map in one of the western states that uses the Township and Range system. In this area, a section of land is one mile on each side . This also happens to be exactly 640 acres.

    Step 1 Spot The Wells

    You start by spotting, or drawing, all the wells on a one-square mile section of land. You need to know the distance of each well from a common boundary . You might get the exact locations from a scout ticket. Heres a single section of land, with our wells spotted on it.

    Step 2 Put The Mapping Value On Each Well

    Next, you look at the electric logs for each well. We are going to make an isopach map. An isopach map is a map that shows the thickness of something. In this case, it is the thickness of a limestone formation. Count the number of feet of sand in the zone you are interested in. Then, put the number of feet of sand below each well spot.

    Step 3 Start Contouring The Largest Values

    Step 4 Draw The 30-Foot Contour

    Hand-Drawn Structure Map

    Choose What Youll Draw And Gather Materials

    For your first contour drawing, we recommend choosing just one object to draw, as this will be easier to focus on than several objects. Put the object or place your seat in a spot where you have a clear view of the object. For materials, youll need a drawing tool , and paper or a sketchpad. If youre using loose paper, you may want to tape it to something so it doesnt move around while youre drawing. Now youre ready to begin!

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    Add The Main Highlights

    Though the shadows really give some dimension to the mountains, the highlights are really what make them pop. Create another layer and use the same technique as you did for the shadows, just on the opposite side of the mountains. Just add some basic highlights at this point since we will do one more pass in the next step.

    Since the background color of this paper is a warmer tone, I used a warm grey for the highlights. This will give good color contrast as well with warmer hues in the highlights and cooler hues in the shadows.

    How Do You Identify A Valley On A Contour Map

    how to draw a topographic profile

    determinecontour linescontourvalley

    . Also know, what shape does a valley have on contour map?

    Valley Contour LinesA valley is an elongated depression in the landscape that is formed by the action of water or carved out by glaciers . Valley bottoms are represented by “U” or “V” shaped contour lines with their closed end pointing towards higher elevation.

    One may also ask, what are the 5 major terrain features on a map? The five major terrain features are: Hill, Ridge, Valley, Saddle, and Depression. The three minor terrain features are: Draw, Spur and Cliff. Terrain features can be learned using the fist or hand to show what each would look like on the ground. Hill-a point or small area of high ground.

    Regarding this, how can you tell the difference between a ridge and a valley on a contour map?

    On a map, valleys are represented by the same contour shape as ridges with the difference being the the wide openings are at lower elevation. A gully is a narrower valley and a couloir is a gully that is formed on the slope of a ridge.

    What are the three types of lines used on a topographic map?

    There are 3 kinds of contour lines you’ll see on a map: intermediate, index, and supplementary.

    • Index lines are the thickest contour lines and are usually labeled with a number at one point along the line.
    • Intermediate lines are the thinner, more common, lines between the index lines.

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    Draw Some Smaller Mountains And Foothills

    Now that you have the main mountains in the ridgeline, you can begin to add some smaller mountains and hills off of them. The technique is really the same as drawing the main ridgeline.

    Be sure to gradually make the mountains smaller as they taper into the surrounding landscape. Though it is possible for a mountain to pop out or a flat landscape, it is much more common for them to be surrounded by smaller foothills.

    How Do You Read Contour Lines

    How To Read Contour Lines

  • Index lines are the thickest contour lines and are usually labeled with a number at one point along the line.
  • Intermediate lines are the thinner, more common, lines between the index lines.
  • Supplementary lines appear as dotted lines, indicating flatter terrain.
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    Use Cross Contouring To Add Dimension

    Cross-contour lines are a way to add depth to your contour drawings without adding shading. To add them, youll draw parallel lines that run across the object, similar to those you might see on a topographic map. See examples here.

    Cross-contour lines will help improve your observational skills and learn more about the rules of perspective by requiring you to pay close attention to the outlines of an object and how the lines run across it. The parts of the object that are closer to you will have cross-contour lines closer together, while the more distant parts of the object will have lines further apart.

    What Is Contour Line Drawing

    How to contour (topographic maps)

    Contour line art is a method of drawing where you draw only the outline of an object, without any shading. Contour actually means outline in French, which is where the name comes from. For example, if you wanted to do a contour line drawing of a pear, youd simply draw the outline of the pear, add a stem, and stop there. Some contour drawings will include outlines of important interior shapes , but contour drawings will never contain shading or minute details.

    Because youre focusing on just the shape of an object and not any minor details, contour line art is a great drawing method for beginning artists as well as those looking for some quick drawing exercises. Children, as well as people without a lot of experience drawing, typically make contour line drawings without realizing it, simply because this method is one of the easiest and quickest ways to begin drawing.

    Professional artists have used contour art for centuries. Cartoonists often use contour art in their finished pieces, the ancient Greeks used it when decorating vases, and da Vinci frequently made contour line drawings when doing figure studies. Its an essential skill that every artist should know and practice regularly.

    The image on the left is an example of contour line art. The image on the right is NOT because it includes shading.

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    Draw The Main Mountains

    With your ridgeline in place you can now begin drawing some of the mountains. Everywhere there is a point in the ridge is an opportunity to draw a peak in the range. Keep things simple at this point and only draw mountains off those main points.

    One of the marks of this style is to use pretty jagged lines with variety in their width. This can be accomplished with a pressure sensitive brush like the Stone Liner Brush Im using. Or, if you are using traditional tools a brush pen is ideal. But, you can still achieve good results if you only have a ballpoint available to you. This artist is more important than the tools.

    Stylized Maps From Contours

    This little tool contains one slightly fancy style, the illuminated contours. These are essentially Tanaka-style contours, where each contour line appears to be raised above the previous one, and illuminated from one direction. They look kind of three-dimensional, like layers of wood cut and stacked up. You can produce these with things like ArcGIS or QGIS, where the methods may be smarter and aware of the aspect of each line segment, but here it’s just a trick with drop shadows. Until now I didn’t know that standard canvas rendering methods include drop shadows! There’s a light stroke around the whole polygon, but it’s obscured on one side by a drop shadow on the fill.

    But the stylistic possibilities with contour lines don’t need to stop at contours themselves. I’ve been playing around with some maps that use contour lines as an intermediate step in deriving the final style, while not necessarily appearing on the map themselves.

    One example is an attempt at hachures. Contour lines serve as starting points for shorter strokes, which travel downhill perpendicular to the contour, stopping at the next contour line. Contours are somewhat visible as gaps in the map, but are not drawn. I haven’t exactly perfected this, but perhaps it’s an improvement on earlier derailed work with faux-hachures that were based on a grid.

    Related Project:

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    Draw An Object You Know Really Well

    Choose something youre very familiar with, such as a favorite childhood toy, the dresser that youve looked at every day of your life, or even a pet or friend, and make a contour line drawing of the object. This may be harder than you think. Because you know the object so well, you may be tempted to add in lots of detail, but remember, contour art focuses on the outer edges of the object. This is a good way to remember whats important in contour art and what you dont include.

    Linespecline Style And Colorcharacter Vector

    How to Draw Contour Lines

    Line style and color, specified as a character vector or string scalar containing characters and symbols. The characters and symbols can appear in any order. You can specify the line style, line color, or both. Marker symbols such as ‘o’ are ignored.

    Example: ‘–g’ is a green dashed line.

    Line Style

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    Slope Percent From Topographic Map

    The horizontal distance between points A and B can be measured with a scaled ruler and used to determine the slope percent.slope percent = rise/run × 100Example 4 – What is the slope percent in Exercise 2 above? slope percent = rise/run × 100.For this computation, the rise, or vertical ground distance, and run, or horizontal ground distance, are needed.Step 1. Measure the horizontal map distance between points A and B to get the vertical ground distance.The horizontal map distance measures 0.5 inches.Step 2. Use the appropriate conversion factor to convert the horizontal map distance to horizontal ground distance.0.5 in × 24,000 in/in = 12,000 inStep 3. The desired unit is feet. Set up the cancellation table so all units will cancel, except the desired unit, feet.Step 4. Use the slope percent equation and solve. The run is 1000 feet and the rise in elevation is 120 feet. slope percent = rise/run × 100slope percent = × 100 = 12%Slope Worksheet – Use the information from the example above and complete the slope worksheet. Line 1 starts with the contour interval, not the projection point. Slope Worksheet

    Line

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