## What Is A Two

A two-point perspective is a realistic drawing method and does not show any extreme low height or extreme high height.

This perspective is an ideal practice to draw still life objects and buildings that are in a distance when looking straight ahead at eye level.

The two-point perspective requires you to include your vanishing point at a distance from your main drawing, to give a realistic 3D impression on a flat surface.

The two-point perspective reflects realism which includes geometric objects and is often seen as the main method of linear perspective drawing.

It is most commonly used when the vertical edges of the objects are parallel to the canvas plane, with vertical lines being truly parallel to one another.

Two-point perspective is usually associated with the orientation of the elements.

## Draw A Sphere Easily Using Ellipses

So as you can see here for the sphere with just two additional ellipses I got here the transformation from a simple circle in 2D to a sphere in 3D. And when I join here Ive got extra access which is going to help me to better visualize tree dimensions.

When you draw this, lets say to explain how to confirm this sphere here but cut this little ellipse that cut the sphere in two is that you can imagine that this is actually from the top view a circle which is on the plane.

The **circle is embedded in the square** in perspective. Then I draw the contour line and I got the x and the z-axis and then I can draw the vertical to get the y-axis.

So in three dimensions, you have X, Y, and Z-axis going through the center of this sphere.

It is pretty magic, right?

So here is a quick preview of what you can do with these three simple forms of perspective.

So here from the top view, basically you have a square, you have a circle which is inside and then you draw the diagonals. And the diagonals, you will draw the contour lines that split the square and the circle in two vertically, horizontally. So you have four parts.Okay, four equal parts. **Its like a game.**

So I invite you to not hesitate to make a pause on this video to rewind a bit and draw with me at the same time.

Here we go like for the cylinder is actually the same logic. You have to think that the ellipse is actually a circle for the top view and is embedded in the square.

## Now Here Are A Few More Examples Of Drawing Cylinders In Different Positions

Draw this cylinder, just like the first cylinder, except this time dont draw the ovals on top of each otherdraw one to the right and a bit above the first oval. Then connect them.

In this above ovalyou will draw 2 circles.overlapping each other. Then draw a plus sign in the center of each circle. Then connect the 2 circles where the center isas seen in the picture above.

In the example above, the cylinder is on its side as if it is going to fall soon. Just draw 2 ovals that are slanted a bitthe top one is a bit to the left and above the first oval.then just connect them with 2 lines.

This cylinder in cut up to show you how you would draw a shape out of the cylinder.

The light strikes the cylinder from the left in the picture above. Receding around their contours to our right we find the half tone, shadow, and reflected light. To the cylinders base are the strongest values the case shadows.

In this cylinder, the light source is directly in front of it. Here you will see that the high light is centered on the object. You will then notice that the object takes form and solidity, as it is shaded on each side of its high light. The shading follows the logical order of half tone, shadow, and reflected light.

To draw a cast shadow of a standing cylinder, do the following :

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## Draw A 3d Cylinder Using Opengl

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**Draw a 3D cylinder using openGL.**

matrixmadhan |

#include < stdio.h> #include < stdlib.h> #include < string.h> #include < math.h> #include < GL/glut.h> #ifndef M_PI#define M_PI 3.14159265#endifint win, win2 int needsLightUpdate = GL_TRUE int useLighting = GL_TRUE int useSpecularTexture = GL_FALSE int useTexture = GL_FALSE int useHighRes = GL_FALSE int usePattern = GL_FALSE int moveLight = GL_FALSE int moveObject = GL_FALSE int drawObj = 0, maxObj = 2 GLfloat lightRotX, lightRotY GLfloat objectRotX, objectRotY int curx, cury, width, height voiddrawCylinderglEnd }}voidinitializevoidredraw else if if glPushMatrix glRotatef glRotatef drawCylinder glPopMatrix if glBlendFunc glEnable glEnable glTexGeni glTexGeni glPushMatrix glRotatef glRotatef drawCylinder glPopMatrix }glDisable glDisable glDisable glDisable glDisable glDisable }voidmotion else if curx = x cury = y }glutPostRedisplay }voidmouse} else if }}voiddisplayint main win = glutCreateWindow glutDisplayFunc glutMouseFunc glutMotionFunc initialize glutMainLoop return 0 }

*Last edited by pludi 11-30-2009 at 09:42 AM..Reason: code tags, please*

Ravikishore |

## Who Has A 12 Foot Table

Unfortunately it is fairly common to start with the primary form in an orientation that puts the two **vps** inconveniently far apart. In the previous cube construction example, assuming a 10 foot circle of view, the cube is oriented so that the two **vps** would about 11 feet apart one 3.2 feet to the left of the **dv**, and the other 7.7 feet to the right. This isnt very convenient for a drafting table.

If you have a 12 foot table, push pins and lots of string , you can work out the geometry of a cube at any size, no problem. If youre lacking the table, you can lay the support on any large bare surface, for example a clean kitchen floor or concrete patio, and work there using tape instead of pins to hold the string.

If those alternatives dont appeal to you, then you can **rescale the drawing**. The basic geometry of the **vps** works exactly the same no matter how big or small the circle of view is assumed to be. So just get a large sheet of paper, draw the 90° circle of view to a conveniently small size , work out the **vps** and perspective drawing in that format, make a careful outline drawing in perspective, then transfer the drawing to the painting support, enlarging it as you make the transfer. You can control the enlargement by squaring the diagram or by using a surface projector, adjusted so that the size of the image matches the length and location of a reference vertical marked in the right place on the support.

method for scaling new lines without vanishing points

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## How To Draw A Cylinder Step 3

Draw a curved line at the bottom of your sides. The curve should be parallel to your foreshortened circle you drew for the top of your cylinder.

If you are drawing a cylinder that is see-through, such as a glass, you will want to draw the far edge on the bottom. This can be done by drawing a foreshortened circle on the bottom, similar to the one you drew for the top of your cylinder.

## Deriving A Cylinder From A Cube

Now let’s see what an ellipse looks like derived on a face of a cube.

Start by drawing a cube in 2-point perspective as described in my earlier drawing Instructable.

Then derive an ellipse on one of the faces.

Then do the same on the opposite face and extrude lines to connect the two ellipses.

Practice this on all faces in different orientations.

Remember if you’re drawing the cylinder laying on its side the lines connecting its top and bottom should be in perspective

Try removing guide lines as you go along.

Here’s some cylinders drawn using major and minor axis.

You might also want to play around with moving ellipses around in space to get yourself familiar with how they behave.

Notice how they become more and more circular the higher or lower they are in relation to the horizon line.

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## How To Draw Multiple Cylinders In Perspective

Welcome to the Design Sketchbook blog!If you are new here and you wanna get ready to start Design Sketching, feel free to receive the Designer Starter Kit and make your first steps!

Lets look at how to draw cylinders in perspective. For this Part A, we will get interested in the **top surface of a tube** which is actually a cylinder within a cylinder.

You can see similar case for a **camera lense for example.**

Below are the steps in picture !

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Both circles share the same center, such as this camera lens for example.

In perspective, both ellipses share the same symmetry axis also called the Minor axis. The minor axis is the shortest distance of the ellipse.

Each ellipse has its respective major axis. The Major axis is the other symmetry axis of the ellipse and also the longest distance.

Minor axis and Major axis are ALWAYS perpendicular each other. No matter what.

The common beginner mistake is to draw both ellipses aligned.

Make sure you watched this previous lesson video about How to draw ellipses in perspective.

**Rule:** A circle fit in a square + A circle in perspective become an ellipse.

**From the front view:** Both Major and Minor axis join in the middle.

But in perspective, the MAJOR axis does NOT cross the center.

Remember, in perspective both ellipses are not aligned through the Major axis.

## Presentation On Theme: How To Draw Cones & Cylinders Presentation Transcript:

1 **How to Draw Cones & Cylinders**With Linear Perspective

2 **To draw a cone – Begin with the base, laying flat on the floor.**

3 **Find the center of that rectangle.**

4 **Draw a line up from the middle that will tell you where the point of the cone will be.**In this case, the vertical line for the middle aligns with the orthographic line that goes to the vanishing point. That is not always the case.

5 **Draw an ellipse in the bottom rectangle.**

6 **Connect the top of the middle, vertical line to the outer edges of the ellipse.**

7 **Erase unnecessary lines.**

8 **Erase unnecessary lines.**

9 To create an upright cylinder – Begin with a rectangle, placed parallel to you. That will be used to represent the height of the cylinder.

10 **Draw that cylinder in one-point perspective with the vanishing point directly above it.**

11 **Erase unnecessary lines.**

12 **Find the center of the top and bottom of the rectangle to create ellipses.**

13 **Find the center of the top and bottom of the rectangle to create ellipses.**vThe bottom ellipse looks strange. However, it is correct since the rule is, the farther away something is from the vanishing point, the larger it appears.v

14 **Connect the top and bottom outer edges of the ellipses to form the sides of the cylinder.**vv

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## Adding A Third Vanishing Point

**Use a three-point perspective if you want your drawing to show height.**You’ll probably use two-point perspective for most of your drawings unless you want the viewer to feel like they’re looking up or down at the subject.XResearch source

**Place a vanishing point above or below the horizon line.**Make a horizon line with two vanishing points on it as though you’re doing two-point perspective. Then, decide if you want to put the third vanishing point below the horizon or above it. If you want to sketch looking down on your subject, make the line under the horizon or position it above the horizon if you want the viewer to look up.XResearch source

**Tip:** You may need to adjust your horizon line if you want to show an extreme three-point perspective. For example, if you’re drawing a skyscraper, bring the horizon lower so you have more room for the subject.

**Draw lines that extend from the extra vanishing point.**Set your ruler on the third vanishing point and draw 3 or 4 lines that move up towards the horizon or down across the horizon.

## Exercise : Circles And Curves

The most challenging aspect of perspective is drawing curving or circular forms. These are typically sketched freehand, inside squares or rectangles to help get proportions correct.

Key points:

- Use the technique of crating drawing complex forms inside rectangular boxes
- Use straight lines to aid the drawing of irregular curves, such as the curving forms of rivers or trees in a one point perspective landscape
- Understand that:
- Circles or curving forms that face the viewer are drawn using their true shape
- Circles that recede towards the vanishing point appear distorted, appearing smaller as they get further away

*A one point perspective drawing by Stephanie Sipp, a professor at Florida State College of Jacksonville, Interior Design department: *

*A perspective landscape by Vincent van Gogh:*

*A drawing by high school student Estherlicious: *

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## Start With A Light Pen Pressure

So remember to draw always starting with Light lines. So it allows you some more margin to maneuver with your mistakes. So, you can iterate on top when something is not correct.

From the cube, the top and below the surface I got highlighted with these little stars like these crosses in three dimensions the center of the top surface, the center below the surface and I joined them.And thats the box that actually you could draw the cylinder inside if you want to.

Because for the cylinder I got draw with a reverse-engineered just to show you that actually you can draw the cylinders first. And then when you understand the basics of perspective, you can complete the box around.

And we got the cube, the sphere, and the cylinder as the three main basic forms of design sketching.

And when you enjoy your cylinder, make sure that you take your time to make things neat in the way that makes sure that your ellipses are well horizontal and the minor axis goes to the middle.

And use it as a symmetry axis. Okay?

## Draw The Cylinder Inside The Prism

Inside the prism draw a line from two of the corner to the corner across from it making an X shape. Do this for both the top and bottom plane.

The point at which the lines overlap will be the proper in perspective middle of the top and bottom plane of the shape. Draw a vertical line though each of the two intersections.

Based on this line draw two halves of an in perspective circle .

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## How To Draw In Circular Perspective

A circle when drawn in perspective becomes an ellipse.

Above are two concentric ellipses , as you would normally see on a dinner plate. Notice that the distance between the two curves nearest our eye is wider than the distance between the two curves as they are farther from our vision . This illusion is caused by the foreshortening of the short diameter. The distances between the two ellipses on the long diameter are always of equal width and constant.

Diagrams B and D are very similar in their method of execution. In the drawing of the arches we see how arcs of the same size may be reduced in relative proportions as they recede in distance. The drawing of arches becomes simplified when first constructed in rectangular door shapes. which are drawn in perspective.

In illustration D, we learn how two identical size circles can be shown in perspective, such as wheels on cars, etc.

Fig. C represents a segment of a cone.

Fig. F illustrates how a circular form may be constructed within a box drawn in perspective.

Fig. H represents a cylinder whose top edge is on a line with our eye level. In Fig. I the top of the cylinder is above our vision, while in Fig. J the top is below the horizon line.

While an ellipse appears easy to draw it is quite common for the average student to have difficulty constructing it. Avoid the usual pitfall of bringing the ellipse to points at the ends of the long diameter .

Diagram E, illustrates a series of circles in relationship to the line of vision.

## Vanishing Points And Parallel Lines

If youve heard anything about perspective in the past, youve probably heard about the concept of a vanishing point. It is a representation of the most fundamental rule of perspective as an object moves farther and farther away from you, its going to appear smaller and smaller to you.

Eventually itll get so small that it collapses to a single point, after which it effectively vanishes due to being so infinitesimally tiny. A vanishing point.

Instead of an object, we can also think of this as applying to a distance, represented by a single line. As this line moves further and further away, its length would shrink until it too collapsed to a vanishing point.

Finally, if you think of this *distance* as being the distance between any two parallel lines , when drawn in 2D any lines that are parallel to one another will ultimately converge towards you guessed it a vanishing point.

This brings us to the rule that exists at the core of understanding perspective: any set of lines that are parallel to one another in 3D space will, as they grow farther and farther away from the viewer, ultimately converge to a single, shared point.

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## Below Are Some Applications Of These Principles

The cone within the cylinder naturally has its center line parallel to the table top. Therefore the cone’s apex is in the air. To draw the cone resting on the table its apex must drop so that its center line falls approximately to the dotted line.

The cone at far right is drawn with this dropped center line.

THEREFORE, CONES LYING ON THEIR SIDES HAVE CENTER LINES INCLINED TO THE PLANES ON WHICH THEY REST.

The similarity of the ellipses at right indicates that these cones are similarly oriented but of different lengths.

While here the varying ellipses and foreshortened lengths suggest that the cones are pointed in various directions and are approximately similar.

Drawing cones is similar to drawing cylinders. The center line of a cone is also an extension of the related ellipse’s minor axis … it lies at right angles to the ellipse’s major axis . . . and it connects to the ellipse not at the ellipse’s center point, but behind it. Study these various principles in the drawings above.

Drawing cones is similar to drawing cylinders. The center line of a cone is also an extension of the related ellipse’s minor axis … it lies at right angles to the ellipse’s major axis . . . and it connects to the ellipse not at the ellipse’s center point, but behind it. Study these various principles in the drawings above.

- Circles, ellipses, cones, cylinders and spheres applied to a “Space Age” drawing.

Chapter 14: SHADE AND SHADOW

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