Thursday, May 19, 2022

# How To Draw A Robotic Arm

## Example 3 Articulated Robot

How to Draw a Robot Arm Step by Step ( Narrated )

Articulated robots are your standard robot arms. They are the most common types of robots you will find in factories. This type of robot is the one that is most similar to the human arm.

Here is an example of an articulated robot.

Articulated robots come in all shapes and sizes. Some of these types of robots can be pretty strong. If you go inside a car factory, youll see giant articulated robots lifting cars and trucks with ease.

Lets draw the kinematic diagram for a three degree of freedom articulated robot. This robot is similar to an old robot named the Stanford Arm. The difference is that, in this robot diagram, we will make the third joint a revolute joint instead of a prismatic joint.

Lets label the links and draw the direction of positive rotation.

Now, lets go through the four rules.

Rule #1: The z-axis is the axis of rotation for a revolute joint .

For the end effector in the image above, I made the z-axis the same direction as the frame before it since it will make the math easier.

Rule #2: The x-axis must be perpendicular to both the current z-axis and the previous z-axis.

Note that, for the base frame, we can set the x-axis to be anything we want as long as rule #2 holds. Ive made it go to the right in the diagram below.

For drawing the other x axes, you have a choice of which direction you want to make them. I like to look ahead to rule #4 to help with this decision.

Rule #4: The x-axis must intersect the previous z-axis .

## Exploring Drawing Techniques With A Robotic Arm

The participation of robots into the social sphere of human life is currently limited to driverless cars and has not affected more mundane tasks. An average office or workplace is void of robots, with clerical staff committed to organizing workspace, cleaning, delivering packages, and so on. With an exception of automated vacuum cleaners, American homes are also devoid of robotic technology. Increasing the domestication of robotic technology, would certainly enhance interest in the field of robotics from the general public.

To explore robotic participation in more usual tasks, our team considered how a robotic arm can benefit us, as engineers, on a regular day. Engineers are not known for their exemplary drawing and artistic abilities. Many have shyd away from writing utensils since the dawn of the keyboard and touch screen. However, it is still convenient to be able to produce quick sketches that that can be passed to project managers, bosses, and other superiors that may not be able to interpret our chicken scratches. To find a replacement for the engineering hand, the Dobot Arm V1.0 was used.

The Dobot Arm V1.0 is a relatively small three degree-of-freedom robotic arm. The arm is produced by a Chinese company by the name of Shenzhen Yuejiang Technology Co. Ltd. The arm is designed with education and small projects particularly in mind.

## Assembly Of The Robot

• Mount servo horn on the top inner bearing disc using self-threading M2 screws of 8mm length. These screws can be found in servo accessories. Be careful about holes you are mounting the horn on .
• Place 30 mm stand-offs on the base. Fasten using M3 bolts of 8mm length.
• Take the bottom outer bearing disc and slide it over standoffs.
• ;Mount bottom inner bearing disc on stand-offs. Align the disc such that smaller holes are in line with the stand-offs.
• Put the bearing on top of the bottom inner bearing disc. Observe how disc supports the bearing from beneath.
• Next, place the two middle inner bearing discs. These will perfectly fit inside the bearing.
• Seat the servo horn & top inner bearing disc assembly on top of bearing as shown. Make sure all smaller holes in these discs are aligned since we will fasten them all together using 20mm M3 bolts.

Note1: Do understand that it was necessary to slide down the bottom outer bearing disc earlier. You wont be able to do it now due to diameter differences.

Note2: Observe how the bearing has been clamped between the top and bottom inner bearing discs.

• Place the middle outer bearing discs first and then top outer bearing disc as shown. The middle discs will have a larger inner diameter compared to the top and bottom ones. The inner diameters of the middle discs will be equal to the bearings outermost diameter.
• Slide up the bottom outer bearing disc, align the holes in the discs and stack them.

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## Alternatives To The Dh Parameters

The DH approach is the most common approach to Forward Kinematics, but it’s not perfect. One of its failings is that it doesn’t handle parallel z-axes very elegantly. There are various alternatives, including Screw Theory representations, Hayati-Roberts, and other geometric modelings . These may be better approaches. However, most kinematic libraries do accept the DH parameters and for that reason, it’s a reasonable approach to begin with.

## Robotic Arm Turns Your Digital Doodles Into Good Old

Draw A Robot Arm Idea

ByKacey Deamer27 February 2017

A small robotic arm can bring your digital sketches to life, by re-creating your on-screen drawings with a pen and paper.

The robotic drawing arm was designed by a team of researchers, who combined their knowledge of kinetic art, drawing machines and internet-connected microprocessor chips to develop the idea. The arm, dubbed Line-us, mimics the user’s drawing motions to re-create a digital sketch with pen and paper, by connecting to an app via Wi-Fi.

At its heart, the machine was developed to be a device for people to play with, said Robert Poll, a technologist and one of Line-us’ co-founders.

“We wanted to create a product that was engaging and fun, rather than something that solved a particular problem or fulfilled a need,” Poll told Live Science. “Our hope is that Line-us encourages people to doodle and draw, but also to find new and creative ways to use it to do things we haven’t thought of.”

Line-us is seeking funding through a Kickstarter campaign, but the project has already surpassed its funding goal of \$48,469 by raising almost \$89,500 as of Feb. 27, and is now gearing up for production. Poll said there’s a lot of work involved with moving from working prototypes to a product that can be manufactured, but the researchers are getting ready for the October release of the first 1,000 units for its funders.

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## How To Draw A Robotic Arm Which Can Pick Objects In Opengl

I am having trouble in implementing a robotic arm which can pick objects, because of the glTranslate, glRotate calls I have in my implementation each and every part of the robot is dependent on the previous part.

Example:

`     void drawRobo             void drawObjects              void display         `

Now the problem is when i rotate the the endeffector or the grabber using glRotate; my objects rotate as well, I don’t want that. I want to be able to rotate the joints and the arm such that it comes closer to objects and then i want to pick them using the grabber.

How do i deal with this? I have the glPushMAtrix and glPopMatrix commands at all places where i need them.

## How To Assign Denavit

In this tutorial, well learn the fundamentals of assigning Denavit-Hartenberg coordinate frames to different types of robotic arms.

Denavit-Hartenberg frames help us to derive the equations that enable us to control a robotic arm.;

The D-H frames of a particular robotic arm can be classified as follows:

• Global coordinate frame: This coordinate frame can have many namesworld frame, base frame, etc. In this two degree of freedom robotic arm, the global coordinate frame is where the robot makes contact with the dry-erase board.
• Joint frames: We need a coordinate frame for each joint.
• End-effector frame: We need a coordinate frame for the end effector of the robot .

To draw the frames , we follow four rules that will enable us to take a shortcut when deriving the mathematics for the robot. These rules collectively are known as the Denavit-Hartenberg Convention.

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## Four Rules Of The Denavit

Here are the four rules that guide the drawing of the D-H coordinate frames:

• The z-axis is the axis of rotation for a revolute joint.;
• The x-axis must be perpendicular to both the current z-axis and the previous z-axis.
• The y-axis is determined from the x-axis and z-axis by using the right-hand coordinate system.
• The x-axis must intersect the previous z-axis .
• 1. The z-axis is the axis of rotation for a revolute joint .;

For example, in the diagram below, the z-axis for Joint 1 will point straight upwards out of the servo motor. This coordinate frame is the global reference frame. It is the frame that is connected to the first joint.

Lets draw the second z-axis.

For our last z-axis, I have a choice. Ill put it in the same direction as the second z-axis.

2. The x-axis must be perpendicular to both the current z-axis and the previous z-axis.

Lets draw the x-axis for the global reference frame. We need to make sure it is perpendicular to the z0 axis. We have a choice here. Ill go with the x-axis pointing to the right since it is easier to see on the diagram.

Lets draw the x-axis for the Joint 2 reference frame. We need to make sure it is perpendicular to both z0 and z1.

Now, lets draw x2.

3. The y-axis is determined from the x-axis and z-axis by using the right-hand coordinate system.

For the right-hand rule, you:

So, in this diagram below, how do we draw y0?

• x0 points to the right .
• z0 points toward the sky .
• Therefore, y0 points into the page.

## Adjust Positions In A Fusion 360 Sketch

How to draw a Robot Arm Real Easy

Sometimes when youre sketching, your dimensions wont line up correctly and youll have undesirable overlaps between parts.

For example, youll notice that some of the motor holes on the top plane are running into the vertical bracket. Therefore, the motor wont properly fit into this component.

In this section, Im going to teach you how to adjust the position and re-align sketches in your Fusion 360 design.

Rather than erasing everything and starting over, you can use the Fusion 360 Timeline to backtrack to the correct sketch.

Revert back to the sketch in the timeline, then right-click on that block and select Edit Sketch. I like to use dimensions to fix this problem. Double-click the dimension you want to change, and type in a new value. Repeat this process until youve fixed the overlap problem.

When youre finished, go to Stop Sketch in the menu. Then, press the fast-forward arrow to go back to the current state in the design. Your changes will populate through the remaining actions, and you should see the corrected part.

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## Calculate The Dh Parameters

Denavit-Hartenberg parameters are often required to enter the robot model into a simulator and start performing any sort of analysis on it.

The best way to visualize the DH parameters is to watch the video I already included above.

The DH parameters break down each joint of the robot into four parameters, each taken with reference to the previous joint. They are calculated in reference to the “common normal” described above. Note that if the previous z-axis intersects the current z-axis, which is often the case, the common normal has a length of zero.

• d – the distance between the previous x-axis and the current x-axis, along the previous z-axis.
• – the angle around the z-axis between the previous x-axis and the current x-axis.
• a – the length of the common normal, which is the distance between the previous z-axis and the current z-axis
• ;- the angle around the common normal to between the previous z-axis and current z-axis.

Go through each joint on your drawing and write down the DH parameters for each joint. Each joint should have one value which is a variable, representing the actuated joint.;

For a more detailed explanation and some examples, I recommend this handout by Peter Corke;or;this chapter from Introduction to Robotics.

## How To Build A Simple Arduino Robotic Arm

Robotic Arm is one of the popular concepts in the robotic community. Robotic arms are very common in industries where they are mainly used in assembly lines in manufacturing plants.

The first thought for a beginner would be constructing a Robotic Arm is a complicated process and involves complex programming. Even our thoughts were same in the beginning and once we put our full focus on the thing, we found it rather easy and all it takes is some time and tinkering.

In this project, we have built a simple Robotic Arm, which is fully automated to do certain tasks. Apart from the Microcontroller and servo motors, all other components that are part of the arm were collected from office scrap .

This is to say that we can build a Robotic Arm with the things we got around and do not require pre designed parts or 3D printed parts.

We will see a step by step construction of the Robotic Arm. The construction made in this project and demonstrated in this blog is as per our convenience and just to give an idea to the reader. You do not have to follow the exact same steps, if you are planning to build one.

Select the Next Set of Arduino Projects You Want to Learn in Electronicshub: Arduino Projects

First, we will see the circuit diagram for the project. The following image shows the necessary circuit for the robotic arm. The circuit is actually very simple and involves only Arduino and 4 servos. But the construction is more complex compared to the actual circuit itself.

Outline

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## Popular Fusion 360 Hotkeys

In this tutorial, I use a lot of Hotkeys. I find that this is the quickest way to access tools within Fusion 360.

Heres a list of the Hotkeys that I use in this Fusion 360 tutorial.

S: brings up the search menuE: ExtrudeJ: JointESC: exit out of current

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## Get A Pencil And Paper

How to Draw a Robotic Arm | a lesson in ballpoint pen tones

It can be tempting to jump straight for your computer when starting with a new robot. However, even if the robot looks like a “standard” 6R manipulator I always sit down with a pencil and paper to draw out the kinematic diagram.

This simple task forces you to carefully consider the actual physical configuration of the robot, avoiding false assumptions that can wreak havoc later on during coding.

There are various ways to draw a kinematic chain. Pick whichever style you prefer.

I favor simple cylinders for the revolute joints and lines for the links, as shown in the image. Do a Google Image Search for “kinematic diagram” and see some of the different styles available.

As you draw, work out which way each joint moves and draw this motion as double-ended arrows onto the diagram.

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## Finishing Touches For The Robot Base

Furthermore, design a box on the front face of the cylinder to store cables. Draw a 40 mm by 80 mm rectangle onto the front face. Then, apply dimensions so that the bottom left corner is 40 mm away from the origin in both the horizontal and vertical directions. Extrude the rectangle out about 70 mm.

Make sure that the extrusion is set to Join so that it adds to the component instead of subtracting away from the cylinder.

Lastly, well add some mounting holes to the square base. These can be used to secure the robot to a table or surface. Create four points on the top face of the square base. The points are 20 mm from the corner in both the horizontal and vertical directions.

Next, use the Hole command to insert holes from the sketch. Well use the four points from before to line up the holes.

Finally, add some Fillets to the edges , and save your project!

Heres what the robot base should look like at the end of this Fusion 360 Tutorial.

In the next tutorial, well learn how to create links for our robot arm. If you have any questions be sure to drop a comment below.

And, if you enjoyed this tutorial, say thanks with a coffee and share it with a friend!

## Here Are Three Fun And Easy Ideas For How To Draw A Robot All Those Simple Shapes Are Great For Beginner Artists

There are many, many different ways to draw a robot, and lots of childrens books written about them. In fact, if you need to pick a project that starts with a story, a robot theme is a good place to start.

What makes them so perfect for early elementary students, is their tendency to be based on very geometric shapes. A square head, rectangular body, and half circle hands are all familiar shapes and good ones to practice when in kinder or first grade or so. They make for a good solid start of a drawing, and are easy to decorate. You can even add in a little body proportion talk if you want, as in the arms need to be long enough to touch the legs, and so on.

Thats not to say that older students cant get in on the fun though too. They can use their imagination to draw robots with a lot more detail, and perhaps give some more thought about how they actually works. A very detailed robot with perhaps a bit of shading in a few corners can make an amazing drawing!

Robot Coloring Page

How to Draw a Robot

• Draw a rectangle body.
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