Drawing The Cyclohexane Hexagon
If there’s one thing you learn in organic chemistry it’s how to draw a hexagon. Many students try to draw the entire thing at once, but the poor hexagon tends to look drunk and wobbly.
In fact, if you’re starting to feel like the class is one big art lesson, read here: Organic Chemistry or Art Class?
Here’s my approach:
But clear? Absolutely!
And that’s what really matters.
As you get better you can combine steps 2 and 3 by simply visualizing the location of the dots.
Chemistry Questions And Answers
Drawing Molecules to Show 3-Dimensionality Line Wedge and Dash Drawings Line. Wedge-and-dash uncountable chemistry A method of representing the three-dimensional structure of a molecule in which simple lines represent bonds in the plane of the image wedge-shaped lines represent bonds towards the viewer and dashed lines represent bonds away from the viewer. In the plane of the paper. Line Wedge and Dash Drawings Line. Drawing Molecules to show 3-dimensionality Line Wedge and Dash Drawings see Revel pg. Going backward behind the plane of the paper 8.
University Chemistry Dash Wedge Structures Do We Draw Double Bonds In Dash And Wedge Structures Homeworkhelp
|Title: University Chemistry Dash Wedge Structures Do We Draw Double Bonds In Dash And Wedge Structures Homeworkhelp|
|Format: ePub Book|
|Read Part Ii Drawing Molecules To Show 3 Dimensionality Chegg|
Drawing Molecules to Show 3-Dimensionality Line Wedge and Dash Drawings Line. Wedge-hash or wedge-dash diagrams are the most common representation used to show 3D shape as they are ideally suited to showing the structure of sp3hybridised tetrahedral atoms. Where are each of.
How To Draw The Enantiomer And A Diastereomer Of A Fischer Projection
Fischer projections make it easy to draw different stereoisomers. As an example, if you are asked to draw the enantiomer of the following molecule with three chiral centers, you can draw an imaginary mirror plane and draw the reflection of the molecule, which is achieved simply by swapping the two group of a chiral center:
To confirm that these two are enantiomers, assign the absolute configuration of the chirality centers. They are all inverted from R to S and S to R.
If you need to draw a diastereomer of the molecule, you need to switch only one chilaity center or, alternatively, switch all except one. In other words, they two representation should be non-mirror image stereoisomers:
For example, glucose one of the most common and important carbohydrates also used extensively for the initial studies, was found to exist naturally as one enantiomer designated as D isomer. The enantiomer, L-glucose can still be prepared synthetically:
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Axial Becomes Equatorial And Equatorial Becomes Axial
Hopefully you’ve been drawing chairs as you read this article. What do you think? does the idea of drawing chair conformations and ring flips still sound as scary as it used to? Let me know by leaving a comment below
Watch the video below for a complete demonstration of what we learned above.
Ready to tackle some chair conformations? Learn about their structure, stability, flips and more in the Cyclohexane Chair Conformations Tutorial Video Series.
How Do You Create A Ramp In Autocad
1. Import the ramp style from the Stair Styles drawing.
2. Open the tool palette that you want to use, and select a stair tool.
3. On the Properties palette, expand Basic General.
4. Select the Ramp-Concrete style.
5. Specify stair settings, such as shape, turn type, and so on.
6. Specify the location of the stair.
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Interpreting A Wedge And Dash Chemical Structure
There are three components to know to read wedge and dash notation:
- solid lines Solid lines or sticks are used for the backbone of the chemical structure. Atoms and chemical bonds exist with the same plane. Think of them as lying in the paper or screen, lined up with one another.
- wedges Solid triangular wedges represent chemical bonds and groups that are coming out of the page, toward you.
- dashes Dashed triangular shapes represent chemical bonds and groups extending back behind the page.
Both wedges and dashes are wedge-shaped and denote bonds in a plane other than that of the page, but its pretty easy to tell them apart.
How To Draw Molecular Geometry Sp3 Sp2 And Sp Hybridized Central Atoms
As somebody who has graded many an organic test, Ive seen just about every nonsense molecular geometry a person could imagine. There are only are a handful of acceptable ways to draw a tetrahedron and a trigonal planar structure. Any other representation will make your professor cringe.
Below are some possible ways to draw a tetrahedron: the electronic geometry of a central atom with four groups around it. These atoms are sp3 hybridized. The most common one is shown first: two of the bonds are in the plane of the screen and two of the bonds are out of plane. One of the out of plane bonds is on a wedge and other out of plane bond is on a dash. Now would be a good time to get out your model kit and think about how a tetrahedron can be drawn from various perspectives. There a even more ways that what Ive drawn here, but great caution must be taken with creative representations.
Below are some nonsensical ways to draw a tetrahedron. There are a billion other wrong ways. These are just some of my favorites. Do not draw these. Please.
There is one more way to represent tetrahedral molecules called a Fischer projection. This representation is meant to simplify complicated molecules with many stereocenters. Note that the four bonds of a Fischer projection are not truly square planar. It is in implied in a Fischer projection that the two horizontal bonds are wedges and the two vertical bonds are dashes.
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Summary: How To Draw Tetrahedral Carbon
- Draw an acute angle between wedges and dashes, and an obtuse angle between the substituents in the plane of the page.
The fact that it is surprisingly easy to screw up drawing tetrahedral carbon may only be in fact surprising to newbies. Experienced students are aware that organic chemistry is a topic which presents a truly astounding variety of ways in which to err!!!
00 General Chemistry Review
How To Draw Fischer Projections
Suppose you have this compound with one chirality center:
Before getting to drawing its Fischer projection, lets number the carbons in any order . Remember, numbering carbons will always be helpful no matter what you need to do with an organic structure.
Here is what Fischer suggested:
If you look at the molecule from the top, you will see the following representation where the two groups on the side are pointing towards and the ones on the top and on the bottom are pointing away from you. We will show the ones on the sides with wedge lines and the others with dashed lines:
There are two wedge and two dash lines which may look strange to you since we always have one of each and then the two solid lines but it is okay-it all depends on the direction we are a looking at the molecule.
This, however, is not the Fischer projection yet, since, remember, we said the main idea was to avoid showing wedge and dash lines yet being able to convey absolute configuration of the chirality centers .
For this, we are going to draw the molecule and simply show all the bonds with plane solid lines, keeping in mind that the horizontal groups are pointing towards you and the ones on the vertical line are pointing away from you:
So, how do you remember which ones are pointing towards you?
Well, you can remember that Fischer projections like you and they are coming to give you a hug with open arms:
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What Are The Fischer Projections
Fischer projections are just another way of drawing compounds contacting chirality centers. They were initially proposed by Emil Fischer for making it easier to draw the structures of compounds containing multiple chirality centers with the main idea of not having to draw the wedge and dash lines for every single chiral center. This is especially applicable and used mostly for drawing sugars.
How To Draw Wedge And Dash Structures Review Organic Chemistry Stencil Drawing Template
how to draw wedge and dash structures REVIEW IMAGE SOURCE AMAZON
- Its the best tool for drawing various structures of organic molecules without a computer. It allows drawing structures fast, with aestheticism and precision. The stencil is used to take notes in class, do the personal exercises and exams.
- Its a high precision laser cut modern instrument 225 mm large x 190 mm high x 0.25 mm depth
- It allows drawing structures fast, with aestheticism and precision.
- The stencil contributes to increase the students interest in this science and especially their chances of success.
- Made of Mylar, this template is thin, flexible, semi-transparent and recyclable.
The stencil allows the study of the various educational aspects listed below: 1- Bond-line structures 2- Geometric isomerism of carbon-carbon double bond and small cycles 3- Newman projections 4- Sawhorse structures 5- Three dimensional structures 6- Conformations of cyclohexane, oses and osides 7- Fischer projections 8- Haworth formula
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Common Mistakes: Drawing Tetrahedral Carbons
How To Properly Draw Tetrahedral Carbons And The Many Ways To Screw It Up
There is a knack to drawing proper tetrahedrons. And some very common pitfalls that might not be immediately obvious.
One of the challenges that has faced chemists since the days of Vant Hoffs controversial proposal that carbons attached to four substituents can adopt a tetrahedral geometry is that of trying to depict three-dimensional structures on a two dimensional page.
How To Draw Enantiomers
In general, the easiest way to draw the enantiomer of a given molecule is to simply redraw the compound, replacing all dashes with wedges and all wedges with dashes.
This is not a universal solution though because the wedge and dash representation is relative and depends on the direction we are looking from. To know for sure if two molecules are enantiomers, the Cahn-Ingold-Prelog system is used.
Another way of drawing the enantiomer of a given molecule, is to put an imaginary mirror and draw everything reflected and this will also give you the enantiomer:
However, attention! You should not do both: you should not draw the mirror reflection and change the wedges and dashes together with it, since you will end up having the same molecule:
You should either keep the molecule as it is and change every wedge to a dash or you can place a mirror image anywhere next to the molecule and draw its reflection.
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Setting Variations: Terminal Carbons On/off Lone Pairs On/off
Your Smartwork organic chemistry problems will always be preset for two structural features that we will call Terminal Carbons On/Off and Lone Pairs On/Off. These settings are already established by the author for each problem and cant be changed by students.
First, some definitions:
A terminal carbon is one at the end of a chain.
A heteroatom is an atom that is not carbon or hydrogen.
Nonbonding electrons are electrons not involved in bonds. These are either lone pairs or single electrons .
The Terminal Carbons On/Off setting determines whether or not you need to explicitly draw hydrogens on heteroatoms . Youll know which setting is being used when you draw your first structure. If hydrogens automatically appear on heteroatoms, you do not need to draw them in.
The Lone Pairs On/Off setting determines whether or not you need to explicitly draw nonbonding electrons on atoms in your structures. The presence of the Increase Lone Pair button in the left drawing panel means you need to include these electrons. If that tool does not appear, you do not need to draw electrons.
This table summarizes the possibilities for these settings, and detailed explanations follow with examples.
The Increase Lone Pair tool button does not appear in the left drawing tool bar.
You do not need to explicitly include nonbonding electrons in your structure.
Terminal Carbons On/Off
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Lone Pairs On/Off
Draw Butane In Wedge And Dash Depiction Sawhorse Depiction And In Its Newman Projection Looking
3. Draw butane in wedge and dash depiction, sawhorse depiction and in its Newman projection looking down the 2.3 bond. Show eclipsed, gauche and anti forms. 4. Draw all Newman projections of 2-methylhexane showing eclipsed, gauche and anti forms. Rotate about the 3.4 carbon-carbon bond and watch what happens to the Draw a potential energy diagram for the rotation about the 3,4 carbon- carbon bond plotting Potential Energy versus Torsion Angle.
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Stereogenic Center Origin Of Chirality
Most often, the origin of chirality in organic molecules is the presence of an asymmetric carbon. This is a carbon with four different groups also referred to as a stereogenic center or a chiral center.
If we draw the mirror image of this molecule, we will see that it is non-superimposable to it. And here is one new definition to learn:
If two molecules are nonsuperimposable mirror images, they are called Enantiomers.
Enantiomers are types of stereoisomers since all the atoms are connected the same but they have a different 3D orientation.
A little scheme as a reminder about constitutional isomers and stereoisomers. It also mentions the diastereomers, but you can ignore those for now if you have not covered them in your class:
Getting back to the asymmetric carbon and chirality A molecule can have more than one chirality center and if you need to identify those, remember that you are looking for a carbon with four different groups.
For example, these are the chirality centers in each of the following molecules:
To recognize the chiral center, look for the wedge and dash bonds as usually these are the ones indicating a chiral center.
One important thing to remember, a carbon with a double bond cannot be a chiral center as it does not have four different groups. Yes, it has four bonds but that is the standard valency of the carbon. It must have four different groups, therefore it must have a tetrahedral geometry.
How Do You Draw Wedge And Dash Structure From Newman Projection
wedgedash structuresNewman ProjectionsDraw two Newman projection templates.
This tutorial demonstrates how to draw a Newman projection in ChemDraw.
Also, which best describes a sawhorse projection? Explanation: Groups connected to both the front and back carbons are drawn using sticks at 120° angles. A sawhorse projection is similar to a Newman projection, but it shows the carbon-carbon bond that is hidden in a Newman projection. Below is a sawhorse projection of the gauche conformation of butane.
Also, what is wedge dash formula?
wedge-and-dash A method of representing the three-dimensional structure of a molecule in which solid lines represent bonds in the plane of the image, wedges represent bonds towards the viewer, and dashed lines represent bonds away from the viewer.
What is sawhorse formula?
A saw-horse formula is a diagram used to depict a specific conformation of a molecule. eg: The staggered conformation of ethane is.
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Converting Newman Projection To A Bond
In order to convert a Newman projection to the corresponding bond-line structure, you need to look at it from the side. So, first, you are going to use. It can be any right or left unless specified in the question.
For example, we can look at this molecule from the right side which places the Cl on the bottom-right corner and the methyl on the top-left:
After this, add the groups on the corresponding carbons pointing them towards you and away from you :
It might be helpful to convert the Newman projection to Haworth before getting the final structure in the bond-line. Haworth projection is different from the Newman in that it shows the bond between the front and back carbons. So, it is not looking directly through the bond, but rather at a slightly tilted angle:
After this, we can now project the Haworth into bond-line and place the groups according to their arrangement:
Drawing The Cyclohexane Chair Conformation
This is where the messiness and confusion arises. Most books will show a chair conformation slightly sideways, making it impossible to copy. Worse, it’s really difficult to show which substituents are axial vs equatorial.
Bowties’ as I like to call them, are ok for the computer generated chair conformation. Here is my simple version which my tutoring clients use on exams with great success.
Draw 2 parallel lines slightly offset from each other. Top left or top right will give you alternate chairs.
Place a dot above the upper opening, and another below the lower opening
Connect the dots
Kinda sounds like the directions for drawing a cyclohexane, doesn’t it?
But the chair confirmation doesn’t stop here. It’s important to understand how to position your substituents. And even more important to show what is axial and what is equatorial.
So let’s move on:
Identify the up tip’ OR down tip’ of your chair conformation, and draw a straight line up or down parallel to the y-plane. This is your first axial substituent.
The chair conformation has alternating axial up, axial down so once you have that single axial substituent move on to..
Alternate your axial substituents up and down all the way around your cyclohexane
Every carbon on the chair conformation has 1 substituent axial and the other equatorial. If axial is up equatorial is down, if equatorial is up then axial is down.
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